THIS DISCUSSION IS CLOSED NOW.
IntroductionEducation as a basic, inalienable and human right empowers the society to directly control its own life wholly. Being intelligent and social animals, human beings have the ability to reflect and prioritise on their needs in educational achieving. Education is generally categorised into three forms: informal, non-formal and formal.Informal education takes place in the family unit/home structure. Realistically, it works with understanding codes and ethics governing a family or homestead and drawn from culture. This form of education includes personal hygiene, cooking, eating habits, communicating with and respecting other members of the family. It entails social norms governing a member of a family unit and the requirements of each member in regards to the traditional ways of living. It might be limited to favouring one gender over the other and the mode of teaching is restricted to ‘experienced’ older family membersFormal education takes place in a school - and follows rules and regulations encoded and decoded by the national requirements. Unlike the informal education, it does not discriminate against gender. The givers of this education strictly get training in recognised formal institutions and not limited to family relations but to anybody who has achieved the set standards for teaching. This is the most commonly adapted form of education subscribed by many nations the whole world over.Non-formal education on the farthest hand falls between the informal and formal except that its target groups are people in close knit societies who need to address a certain problem/ issue while integrating other skills in their daily activities. It usually does not follow conventional defined rules as it is based outside the formal system attached to functional literacy for adults and youths. Functional is directed towards improvement skill management in fields such as business, human rights, civic education, farming (both large and small scale), reading, writing and numeracy. Goals of Education and Information Communication and TechnologyIn April 2000, the international community converged in Dakar, Senegal for the World Education Forum and adapted the Dakar Framework for Action, commonly referred to as the Goals of Education. The six Dakar Goals for education are:i. Expanding and improving comprehensive early childhood care and education, especially for the most vulnerable and disadvantaged childrenii. Ensuring that by 2015, all children, particularly girls, children in difficult circumstances and those belonging to ethnic minorities, have access to and complete free and compulsory primary education of good qualityiii. Ensuring that the learning needs of all young people and adults are met through equitable access to appropriate learning and life skills programmeiv. Achieving a 50 per cent improvement in levels of adult literacy by 2015, especially for women and equitable access to basic and continuing education for adultsv. Eliminating gender disparities in primary and secondary education by 2005, and achieving gender equality by 2015 with a focus on ensuring girls’ full participation and equal access to and achievement in the basic education of good qualityvi. Improving all aspects of the quality of education and ensuring excellence of all so that recognized and measurable learning outcomes are achieved by all, especially in literacy, numeracy and essential life skillsSince ICT is not directly mentioned in the goals, it becomes imperative to identify the need to forge ICT facilitation of pedagogy. This means that educational training programmes are focused on classroom skills but less inclined towards the use of ICT. The technological tool provides learners with practical use of communication equipment for a greater harnessed learning approach and methodology. Education does not necessary have to be ‘conventional’ – based on getting information from a textbook. As the societies progresses more towards the information age, learning is only practical when the world balances the need do have a fully-fledged educational perspective. The currently heightened global concern for education quality can gradually be dissociated from the concern for universal and equitable access to education, fuelled by different social-factor from local to the international level.Indeed education is so vital that among many other rights – to worship, vote, associate, expression – education is the only compulsory right. Unlike other rights that are left to individual choices, nations deem it appropriate to compel their citizens to exercise this right. It therefore becomes a pat and hard slap in pedagogy facilitation.For the transformation sound educational and environmental capacity, the commitments by the world needs some aspects for self- organisation, expressing and promote conducive cultural social and economical milieu according to their needs and talents; which is drawn in three empowerment aspects. The economic empowerment is the description of relating economics to the work of the people in relation to the growing demands of the society in relation to the global needs.Cultural empowerment aspects are related to the values and belief systems and integration of legal rights and duties to have the ability to fulfil the needs of the people. The social and physical empowerment is relative to a safer environment which promotes security for food, shelter, heath and finances which disparaging fear based on corruption, harassment and discrimination.For education access to be measured it must reflect on the needs of the people. Economically many nations in the development world would fare poorly. This is because there is a lot of mismanagement of resources, lack of political will and poor information on the need to adapt change in ideals. Although a substantial amount of national budget is driven towards education (40%in Nigeria) little impact in terms of ICT is felt except for the well to do private schools; public funded schools have a weak or no ICT programme within. Private schools have excellent facilities the ratio of teachers to learners (say 1:25) and the teachers are motivated while public funded schools are synonymous with dilapidated and inadequate facilities, poorly trained and under-motivated teaching personnel, inadequate learning materials and the student to teacher ratio is twice or thrice the recommended capacity(say1:60). This aspect broadly lowers or lifts the level of education (depending on one’s standpoint) and generally affects the whole pedagogy methodology.In order to improve the learning needs of the citizen, integrating ICT in schools will enhance the kind of education the society gives to the young people. A teacher with many students can be able to conduct lessons without exhausting himself. Rather, the carrying out of lessons will be done in a friendlier and reflective way – thus easily becomes an access to education. The Dakar goals for education are however silent on the integrating and appreciation of ICT for education improvement, leaving this to policy makers and countries to interpret for themselves.QUALITY vs. QUANTITY, the stepping stoneThe 1990, World declaration of Education for All holds that quality education – which is specific and reflective – effectively meets the learning needs of learners. Individual and collective learning needs differ across the board, identifying relevance as an integral part of quality education. In the face of globalisation, the need to highlight the specificity and universality of education cannot be ignored. Quality learning constitutes assessing prevailing learning conditions which include diverse mobilised resources to effectively make education accessible and of a quality standard. Physical resources have to be improved and drawn on the wider and accelerated learning needs. ICT needs facilities that are conducive to the enhancement of education in structure and form. These resources have to be met in the financing of educational programmes. Inadequacies physical and human resources affect instructional time. With ICT, the human resource will not be worried about education dissemination. Information technology will improve the teaching time in cases where there are problems of student and teacher truancy.For education to be of quality standard, the curriculum and materials used need to be effective and of good support (books, and learning materials) can be replaced by single downloadable software which can be installed in computers for both teachers and learners. This relies on backing on informative students’ assessment and examination systems. Teachers are the renders of education. They are therefo0re expected to provide educational instruction following the identified curriculum and syllabi. Most of them however, suffer general job insecurity, lack of steady incomes; have a low quality of work life, including poor accommodation. Excessive workloads instituting multiple shifts compel the teacher to hurriedly finish the syllabus within the stipulated time without being aware that learners are of different classes: slow learners, mid-learners and fast learners.All these can be reduced or completely eliminated with the adaptation of ICT. Most definitely ICT intervention will improve education quality as it increases the capacity of teachers to explore the channels for expanding knowledge access to learners. This approach will create a learner-teacher motivation strengthening the assessment and monitoring capacity for educational improvement, achievement and development, hence producing education of a quality standard.Moving Against the TidesAchieving quality education is usually a major step ahead through which flexible learning programmes are drawn. Information communication and technological tools can surely enhance access to quality education which optimises the development of learners’ potentials and talents. Although economic aspects determine how far a country is aimed at adapting ICT, the provision of sound infrastructural facilities including lowered Internet costs, available software etc, are factors that determine how serious the Education for All of a quality standard are drawn and capable of riding against the tides.ConclusionEducation in developed countries should be reflective of the needs of the 21st century. But at the same time, it should acknowledge that integrate and interesting innovations could provide the impetus for a positive change in pedagogy facilitationThrough ICT, the repackaged educational facilities will include complements for keeping the society abreast with the new trends revolving around the global village. Needless to say, the early investments in human development, through ICT is a prerequisite and is only fair to say that this is an exciting and promising time for quality education. The lessons are small, but the whole has got to move than the forgotten past. Most importantly, 2015 is just nine years away!
The disscussions so far deal with academic overaching issues..looking at basic entitlements we need to examine local and global exclution even here in the UK there are reported mechanisms that prevent African children from reaching their potential, by ensuring that they are placed in learning sets to disempower their potential. Low exspectations and dumming down that manifests intels into exclsion from the system and straight into the penal systems. This have been evidented , reported researched yet still these systems are in operation.
Creo que la educación es la base de cualquier sociedad, de su preservación, de su desarrollo, de su inserción en la nueva sociedad del conocimiento o sociedad global. Todo ello importante, pero vital la formación integral del ser humano como tal, muy importante por ejemplo la formación de las niñas, como mujeres integras, respetuosas de si, de su cuerpo y de su integridad, pues la mujer, asi como el hombre a futuro serán artífices de una nueva sociedad, mas justa, más humana, mas digna, respetuosos de la vida civica, cultural, social, de la cultura ciudadana.
Hablo en especial de las niñas, sin desconocer por supuesto a los niños, por la enorme responsabilidad que tienen las niñas como futuras dadoras de la vida, del amor, la generación de valores que deben dar a su familia. Por lo tanto, debemos procurar a través de la educación lograr recuperar los valores en las niñas y niños para buscar cambiar este mundo desde lo local a lo global.
Por lo anterior debemos replantear desde los currículos, desde la enseñanza como recuperar los valores, la esencia del ser humano, a no crear conflicto, sino buscar la reconciliación entre los hermanos, generar alegría y fé en nuestros niños, niñas y jóvenes que tengan fe en el futoro.
The Consortium for Research on Educational Access Transitions and Equity has undertaken research across nine countries over the last six years. Its findings are synthesiesd in Making Rights Realities which is available free on the CREATE website www.create-rpc.org. This includes the CREATE 12 point framework for development which suggests areas for action and which can be linked to indicators of progress. The report reviews key elements of the successess and failures since 2000.
Recently the Commonwealth Mininsters set uup a working party of the post 2015 MDGs and EFA Goals. The most recent communiques and suggestions for a post 2015 architecture for development can be found at
The Background Paper can be found at http://www.thecommonwealth.org/files/251982/FileName/CommonwealthRecommendationsforthePost-2015DevelopmentFrameworkforEducationBackgroundPaper.pdf.
There is sufficient evidence from countless research and discourse in communties of the importance of education, its role in the advancement of tommorrow's world order. Whilst there seems to an overload of information about the importance of education, particularly the education of girls, yet we (the world) seems unable to translate these words into action. I pray this discourse will contribute towards translating words into action. In my previous contribution I highlighted the value of educating our girls. In my thinking gender equality does not mean uniformity, for reasons that are obvious. However gender equlity implies to me, equal opporrtunity for both boys and girls, particulalry girls. The imbalance in many communties are so great, most communities have thru neglect denied themselves the opportunity to advance. I cited the example of the bird. In my country, the most beautiful bird is the Bird of Paradise. This bird reflects the beauty and nobility of the world of humanity. The two wings of this bird of paradise, are the two wings of the world of humanity, of male and female. In order for this bird of humanity to fly towards the heaven, towards its progress and prosperity, both wings must be equally strong. Should one wing be weak, that bird will be incapable of flight, hence its means of progress and advancement is seriously impacted. The world of humanity has a reach a level of maturity that it now understand, appreciate and value the importance of educating our women folks. Unless this is excercise with wisdom and determine, men folks the world over may not realise the full potential that might be theirs.I pray we men folks contribute to the advancment of our women folk by providing equal opportunity in education
Thank you for the opportunity to share some thoughts on this vital and critical issue at this time. when the world is in so much chaos and suffering the our institutions design to and dedicated to protect and preserve our world is struggling to deal with it. We the grassroots must start in our local communties, to make a difference in our villages.
Finally, this are my thoughts and do not represent the institution I work for. I beleive in the principle of "independent investigation of truth" as fundemental principle to guide such important discourse as this. I pray that from our discussions we will have establish the foundation for better 2015.
In addition to what i said about children earlier, the youth in my state Taraba and indeed North East of the country not forgetting Nigeria suffers from
what Prof. Ali Mazui of Kenya called ageism. I remember when i was the National leaders of the National youth Council of Nigeria representing North East
we were invited by government to formulate policies and implementation strategies for Nigerian youth in 2001, 2 years into our new democracy.
Consultantions were done in 6 geo-political zones of the country by the relevant ministry of Youth under the Minister Hajia Aisha Is'mail.
Till today 5% of the content of the policies and implementing strategies were not done , how can the standard of the young person improved?
7 years ago a was the National Youth leader on (Youth in Agriculture NOYA) the ministry of Youth called us to summit a proposal worth One billion naira for Nigeria youth in Agriculture, my committee came up with committement fron other stakeholder worth another one billion naira making it 2 billion naira. This was given to the minister, but sooner did he resigned his appointment to take up another appointment our proposal was thrown out despite the fact the new minister is know to me and from my state.
I am trying to show how youth efforts and initiatives are not considered in national or local settings in Nigeria, Unless a strong lesgilation is put in place youth will contiue to suufer deprivations. Youth will never be leaders of tommorrow. CSOs that are youth focus and youth led should be engaged to monitored how policies regarding youth should be implemented.
My experience working in over 200 rural communities in Papua Guinea since the 1980s revealed the vital and critical role education plays empowerment of individuals in rural communities to work together collectively for their betterment and wellbeing. IN rural Papua New Guinea, every father, mothers, grandfather, grandmothers understands and appreciate the indispensable value of education in the advancement and development of communities. For example, in the informal market places, there are some parents that toil all day including Saturdays and Sunday to raise sufficient to educate their children. Most current focus on male children, however some are beginning to realise the value of an educated daughter.
In relation to MDG goals, I am of the view all other MDGs are dependent on the Goal No. # 2, or access to Universal Education, with particular focus on education of girls. In my limited experience and thinking education is the single most important and vital activity. Henceforth, education is a long term commitment must be the primary focus of all development efforts throughout the world. Development outcomes can only be successful, when the local people themselves actively participate and contribute towards serving and developing their communities. Education of girl is a special responsibility of parents, communities, NGOs, and governments. There is saying in some matrilineal communities, “When you educate girls you educate a community/society, when you educate boys you educate an individual.”
In addition, strongly believe that should the UN and world community intensify activities related to education, for the next 30 years, the world would have developed a sizable pool of human resources to engage in the development of communities wherever they are. Furthermore, educated pools of human resource serving in their respective communities provide a strong foundation to fulfil other goals of MDG.
Basically, the most prior tags derived from countries that are successfully driven in access increment and improving equity is…
In my opinion, the challenges in ensuring equitable access to education for all can be categorized as follows;
My key recommendation(s) for improving equitable access in the post-2015 framework are:
It seems like we are sharing a like-mind.
Frankly speacking, Suath's comments are very important and I would support to put high periority the recommendations suggested by Suath to apply post 2015
If U NO takes up only one development agenda beyond 2015, it will be equitable and universal educational opportunity towards human development. Our experience suggests that the outcome of education as a part of Millennium Development goal is abysmally low. Basic aim should be to develop human being; in turn they will manage other resources for a better quality of life in general.
After elapse of 12 years of MDG, we may observe the following situations:
There are much more instances of this type which indicate that millennium educational goal have miserably failed in terms of effective, equitable and meaningful education. Education system if planned and executed at international level can solve the above problems. I offer my service to produce a new paradigm in this direction.
1. Based on my understanding of achieving equitable access for all, the key target(s) should be:-recognition, accreditation and utilization/institutionalization of all sorts of knowledge and skills (and literacies) especially those gained from nonformal and informal sources-learning communities-lifelong learners-localization of knowledge
…, and the indicators used to measure progress should be…
-local multistakeholder bodies that advocate and manage quality and accessible education-accreditation/equivalency mechanisms, policies and systems both national and local level-local guilds-context responsive learning communities-incentives and rewards for lifelong learning -distance education programs
2. In my experience, the key lessons gained from countries that have been successful in increasing access and improving equity are…-active participation of various stakeholders in education, especially the business sector, civil society and the mass media-empowerment of families and the learner's immediate community- proper utilization of resources / good governance-peaceful environment-political support-recognition of local initiatives
3. In my opinion, the challenges in ensuring equitable access to education for all (globally, regionally, nationally) are…- push for standardization-conflicts -disasters / emergencies-non recognition, non valuing of nonformal and informal learning -hegemony of schooling
4. My key recommendation(s) for improving equitable access in the post-2015 framework are...
-mechanisms for the recognition of nonformal and informal learning-multi-stakeholdership in education -proper governance of education
-localization of learning-strengthening of collective efforts in education
-better utilization of mass media and other technologies in the delivery of learning
-departure from schooling towards learning
-responsive and therapeutic educational programs in times of conflicts, disasters and emergencies
-models of lifelong learning
¿QUÉ HACER PARA MEJORAR EL ALTO NIVEL DE INEQUIDAD SOCIO EDUCATIVA?
En nuestro sistema la desigualdad de oportunidades como el de aprender, estudiar, trabajar, tener mejores condiciones de vida, producir bienestar, ganar posición económica, satisfacer necesidades cada día se ha hecho mas difícil; quiere decir que la brecha de desigualdad de oportunidades se ha incrementado.
Las instituciones educativas tienen su función de cerrarla brecha de los que no aprender por medio de estrategias efectivas mediante alianzas optimas.
Mi propuesta clave es implementar la POLITICA DE DISCRIMINACIÓN POSITIVA
¿Qué significa esto? Dar más prioridad al que menos puede y tiene.
“SI HOY DISTRIBUIMOS BIEN EL CONOCIMIENTO, EN EL FUTURO HABREMOS DISTRIBUIDO BIEN LA ECONOMÍA”
DE SER ASÍ ESTARÍAMOS TRABAJANDO PARA CERRAR LA BRECHA DE LA POBREZA.
Sensibilizar el Trabajo Docente.
Organizar en redes educativas de 5 escuelas con un coordinador educativo.
Implementar escenarios socio educativos para un aprendizaje exitoso.
Formar alianzas estratégicas con autoridades.
Capacitar a los docentes con estrategias cognitivas asertivas.
Fortalecer una política por resultados.
Implementar Política de “Escuelas del Futuro” red de Socio Escuelas para su implementación en la política de Calidad y Equidad de sus aprendizajes en escuelas rurales y urbanas marginales.
A MI OPINIÓN SERIA IMPORTANTE IMPLEMENTAR LAS 6 CLAVES PARA MEJORAR LOS RESULTADOS EDUCATIVOS.
CONSTRUYENDO ESCUELAS DEL FUTUROFUNDAMENTOS DE FORTALEZA EN LA GESTION SOCIO EDUCATIVA
Dotar de mayor atención al estudiante que tiene dificultad de aprender.
Garantizar el aprendizaje de los estudiante.
Redistribuir las responsabilidades socio educativas.
Número de estudiantes que tienen bajo nivel de aprendizaje de cada IE.
Resultados de la evaluación de medición de la calidad de sus aprendizajes.
Jenner Acevedo Mayta
Contribution from the UNCSD MGCY
Submitted by the International Center for Research on Women (ICRW)
ICRW stresses the need for continued and increased attention to gender considerations in the development of the post-2015 goals related to education. In particular,adolescent girls must be a priority population for education goals. While there has been considerable progress toward reaching gender parity at the primary level,in much of the developing world,girls are still considerably less likely than boys to transition to and/or complete secondary-level education. Girls’ drop-out from school often coincides with puberty,a time when they are more vulnerable to unplanned pregnancy,early marriage,and sexual coercion and harassment. Educational status and sexual and reproductive health status are closely linked; therefore,education and sexual and reproductive health goals must be better linked. For example,education-related goals should incorporate indicators on delayed pregnancy,delayed marriage,reduced rates of violence and coercion,and improved overall health.
Goals related to both demand and supply of education at the secondary level will help ensure that all girls, even those who are most vulnerable to drop-out, can complete at least a secondary-level education and be as healthy and empowered as possible for adulthood.
ICRW also recommends new indicators that emphasize quality,i.e. achievement and learning,rather than simply enrolment and attainment. As the World Bank notes in its paper for the ICPD Global Youth Forum (http://icpdbeyond2014.org/about/view/13-icpd-global-youth-forum), while youth in developing countries are spending more time in school than ever before, “learning levels in many countries are alarmingly low, which suggests that time in school is not always well spent.”
Gender is a key dimension of educational quality. The school environment,policies,curriculum,teachers and teaching methods must be relevant to the learning needs and aspirations of boys and girls from all backgrounds in order to facilitate learning and achievement. School curricula should emphasize the relevant skills and tools that enable girls and boys to make safe,healthy and equitable transitions to adulthood – as workers,citizens,spouses and parents. Education goals should be linked to economic development goals,ensuring that both male and female students are gaining the skills they need to participate in the labor market. A focus on quality,in addition to quantity,is absolutely essential in achieving the World We Want.
Further,because so many gender-related barriers exist to girls enrolling,remaining and succeeding in schools,we recommend outreach to communities,community leaders and parents about the value and benefits of education,particularly for girls,so as to enable a supportive,encouraging environment for all children and youth to attend school.
Finally, ICRW had the honor of serving on the International Steering Committee for the ICPD Global Youth Forum, which took place earlier this month in Bali, Indonesia. Nearly 1000 people from 130 countries participated in person, including 600 youth leaders, as well as representatives of governments, UN agencies, non-governmental and private sector organizations.
Among the topics that the participants discussed and debated was comprehensive education. The delegates came to consensus on an impressive and forward-looking set of recommendations. These recommendations,all of which are targeted toward governments (and in some cases,other stakeholders) and geared toward improving equitable access for young people to education in the post-2015 framework,follow:
- Ensure universal access to free,quality,comprehensive education at all levels in a safe and participatory environment.
- Adopt a rights-based approach to education,including formal,informal and non-formal education,targeting vulnerable and marginalized groups*,especially girls.
- Provide special,equal and equitable educational programs,including through mainstreaming extracurricular activities,for vulnerable and marginalized groups,especially young people living with disabilities.
- Acknowledge that learners have different learning needs,requiring different pedagogical styles. Therefore,alternative modes of learning must be valued and formally acknowledged.
- Enact,implement and enforce laws that enable education in an environment free from discrimination,violence,and bullying.
- With the active and meaningful participation of adolescents and youth,develop and implement effective systems for appropriate curriculum development and periodic review to empower young people to gain relevant skills for employment and livelihoods,including promoting vocational educational programs and involvement of the private sector.
- Implement and monitor sustainable gender-sensitive and transformative educational programs,by establishing gender-sensitive indicators and quality education systems and infrastructure,which should include qualified staff,appropriate facilities,tools (including technology),teaching materials and methods.
- Allocate sufficient funds towards achieving universal access to comprehensive education.
- Enact policies that facilitate investment in education by private sector partners,the international community and other stakeholders.
- Young people should be involved in establishing monitoring and evaluation processes to improve and sustain consistent and quality education that is evidence-based,and ensure effective governance,transparency and accountability.
- Establish partnerships to make adolescents and youth aware of their rights to staying healthy through formal and non-formal education.
- Provide non-discriminatory,non-judgmental,rights-based,age appropriate,gender-sensitive health education including youth-friendly,evidence based comprehensive sexuality education that is context specific.
- Create enabling environments and policies to ensure that young people have access to comprehensive sexuality education,in formal and non-formal settings,through reducing barriers and allocating adequate budgets.
*Girls, LGBTQI, people living with disabilities, indigenous people, migrants, [socioeconomic status], language minorities, women, pregnant girls, people living in the context of war and humanitarian contexts, sex workers, people living with HIV/AIDS, dropouts, Afro-descendants, and displaced peoples.
As these recommendations resulted from multi-stakeholder consultations sponsored by the UN system and led by young people from around the world, ICRW urges their consideration by the World We Want platform.
Educational inequality as central to any future development framework
We welcome the opportunity to contribute to this on-line consultation. There are few more important issues in the debate about the post 2015 development framework than how to ensure great equity in education systems.
Save the Children has argued that a concern for high and unfair levels of inequality should be at the heart of the overall post-2015 framework. Education, on top of being a fundamental human right, is critical to both achieving more equal opportunities for children from all backgrounds and also a more equal distribution of income in society. The past experience of countries like South Korea and the more recent contribution of education to reducing income inequality in Brazil are evidence for how critical fairer and high quality school systems can be in reducing wider inequalities.
What is more the scale of educational inequalities remain large. Save the Children’s recent Born Equal publication (http://www.savethechildren.org.uk/sites/default/files/images/Born_Equal.pdf ) stated that:
“On household income there is clear and consistent evidence that poorer households have worse education outcomes. In Nigeria the poorest young adults aged 17–22 have, on average, experienced less than five years of education; the wealthiest have achieved more than ten. In Rwanda children in the better-off urban areas fare better than in most other parts of the country, no matter which indicator you look at. For example, only 6% of the capital’s 17–22-year-olds have less than two years of schooling, compared with a 12% national average. The average 17–22-year-old in Kigali has 6.68 years in school – over a year more than the national average of 5.10 years.”
Which inequalities should we focus on?
Before addressing the specific questions asked in this consultation it is worth making a few preliminary comments.
It is important to consider what there should be more equitable access to. It cannot simply be equal access to ‘school’, for example as measured through enrolment and retention rates. Instead Save the Children believes that this generation has the historic opportunity to “reach zero” with not only all children receiving an education, but with no child failing to achieve good learning outcomes. So ‘equal access to education’ must mean equal access to learning – all children receiving some form of schooling, but also learning. The evidence on the scale of the learning crisis is significant and growing; just a few months ago Kofi Anan’s Africa Progress Panel [ http://africaprogresspanel.org/en/our-work/publications/a-twin-education-crisis-is-holding-back-africa1/ ] concluded that “many of the children in school are receiving an education of such abysmal quality that they are learning very little.”
So learning should be the key outcome that the post-2015 framework should be concerned about. A second question, which follows from this, is which form of inequality should be our focus. There are a number of options. One possibility is that policy makers should focus on creating more equitable outcomes across the whole population of children (i.e. do not focus on specific groups, but instead look at ‘vertical inequalities’). Another possible form of inequality is that between different groups, including gender, ethnicity and income/wealth. Both these forms of inequality in education matter. However, we are arguing that the post-2015 framework should focus on assessing inequalities between groups. There are a number of reasons for this. It is easy to understand as being unfair – why should children from poor households systematically do worse at school than their richer counterparts? Furthermore focusing on specific groups in this way is likely to result in more equal education systems overall in any case.
Finally, following from this last point, it is also worth asking which groups should be the focus of the post-2015 framework. In Save the Children’s view gender should remain critical. There has been considerable progress on gender equity, but of the 68 countries that have not yet achieved gender parity in terms of access to primary schooling in 60 girls continue to be disadvantaged. However, on its own a focus on gender is not sufficient. Indeed there is good evidence that other inequalities, including in particular those between different income/wealth quintiles, are larger. It is, therefore, critical that differential outcomes between children from different income groups are central in the post-2015 framework.
In the remainder of this submission we address some of the specific questions that have been asked. Where it makes sense we have batched some of the questions together:
In your opinion, what are the current and foreseeable challenges in ensuring equitable access to education for all?
The challenges are considerable, but below we pull out four which might be considered particularly important:
What would be your recommendations to improve access to education in the post MDG framework? What are the key policy implications for Education goals in the broader Post-2015 Development Agenda?
The key implication of the above discussion is that the post-MDG framework should be built around the two core principles of ‘learning and equity’. The new development framework must focus on reducing the learning gap between the poorest and richest. An explicit focus on equity requires the last 10% of children still out of primary school to be both in school and learning. This will require targeted action, including targeting funding, to reach the poorest, disabled children, girls, ethnic minorities and children who happen to live in conflict or emergency affected countries. Many children continue to be disadvantaged because their education is disrupted by emergencies – whether conflicts or natural disasters. In the future there must be a significantly increased focus on education in such contexts. In addition there is a need for focusing on out-of-school policies that improve the home learning environment and provide opportunities to learn in the community.
What shape should the goals take? Should there be targets, interim targets, regional and national specifications?
Save the Children in publishing a full set of potential goals, targets and indictors across all areas of human development in January next year. We will also be publishing a more detailed paper on education and post-2015 in spring 2013. These goals and targets will be detailed, but also necessarily merely suggestions for debate at this stage. In this submission, rather than pre-empt the publication of the full set of goals, targets and indicators, we set out how we have address the question of equity in particular. We believe that greater equity could be ensured in a framework in a three ways:
1. Including an early child development target which is focused on most deprived and marginalised. This could be measured using household surveys such as UNICEF’s MICs survey.
2. A learning target during basic education (which we argue should be focused on learning outcomes at the age of 12) should be disaggregated by income group and gender and specific equity indicators developed. These should include quantifiable reductions in the “learning gaps” between different groups.
3. On gender, as well as disaggregating learning goals by gender, we believe there is a case for a specific gender indicator on secondary education.
It will also be important to consider the potential structure for the goal, targets and indicators. In particular there is a question about the balance between the global and the national level. We believe that we should work towards achieving a global goal which has some globally comparable targets, but that this should be combined with national level targets which reflect the specific starting points and contexts for each country.
Because all children have the right to an education and to be meaningful that education must mean access to learning, we believe that a global framework should set the goal of ensuring that all children, everywhere in the world, achieve some core learning outcomes. We believe that this should mean all children, by the end of primary school being able to read and write and carry out a reasonable level of mathematics. However, literacy and numeracy are not the sum total of learning; among other things critical thinking and context specific knowledge are also essential. Furthermore, setting ‘global floors’ which state the minimum that any child should be able to achieve cannot be the limits of our ambitions. We also believe that countries themselves can set a range of national level targets which could include more stretching goals in core skills or measurement of other skills including life skills and skills which are most important in a particular context.
We look forward to contributing to subsequent stages in this consultation process. In the meantime please look out for Save the Children’s report on the post-2015 framework which will be published early in 2013.
4. My key recommendation(s) for improving equitable access in the post-2015 framework are...The cornerstone to moving the MDGs forward post 2015 is education. Without education, we cannot expect to gain innovation and skill to tackle poverty. Even more importantly, if access to education is not equitable, we will lose perspective and effective influence on eradicating poverty. In this context, inequality must be addressed in an education system that has traditionally held space for the most affluent throughout mainly a capital market system. We have seen that educating elite groups around the world does not produce the intellectual and economic gain that will continue to allow nations to thrive. Therefore reconstructing access to education so that all have access regardless of age, gender, ethnicity, ability, economic status and religious beliefs must become a priority post 2015 to dismantle the factors that continue to oppress through poverty. The post 2015 agenda should consider the implications and implementation of the following:
I'm from Myanmar (Burma). As you know, we need very basic education systems nationwide. We are still struggling to meet Internation Education System.
It is essential to note that a vital part of ensuring access to education is ensuring that the in-school students recieving the education being imparted are capable of recieving, assimilating and utilizing that knowledge. The premise I am building up to is in relation to 'Short-term hunger'. Therefore while planning to ensure access to education one should take into account that a large percentage of the population they are targeting is also food insecure, and the schools are at times the only way to target primary age children for nutrition related interventions.
Mis recomendaciones claves para mejorar el acceso equitativo en el Argentina marco post-2015 son:
El Estado argentino debe ampliar la oferta educativa pública y gratuita de las salas de 4 y 5 años.
El involucramiento de los padres y madres (familia o tutores) en la educación de sus hijos/as y el trabajo conjunto y articulado del Estado con organizaciones sociales son dos factores clave a la hora de mejorar la calidad educativa en Argentina.
En Argentina tenemos un muy buen Programa de Educacion Sexual Integral, con excelente materiales, pero la aplicación de la ley y la ejecución de estas políticas no es uniforme en cada una de las jurisdicciones del país. Debe existir una correcta y equitativa aplicación y cumplimiento de la ley. Asimismo, los docentes argentinos deben recibir formación sistemática y continúa en la materia.
In my country Pakistan, a lot has to be done in Education in order to achieve the MDGs. The first problem is that it seems as if my country is unable to achieve the MDG by 2015 as still there are many children out of school. The double standard in education is widening the gap between the haves and have nots. The bulow level of budget at the governement level makes it impossible to provide quality education. The worst situation of monitoring and evaluation/supervision in governement system pushes the system into its worst conditions. The raising extrimism and terrorism at times makes it impossible for educational institutions to complete its academic session properly. Female education is at stake due to religious extremist groups and old traditions.
Hence there are countless issues faced by Pakistan today and in my opinion eduation is the only weapon to start with and improve the conditions. I think Government as the most accessable system to the mass, has to improve the standards of education by investing in teacher education, proper monitoring system in its school, providing quality leadership in education, less interference of politicians in schools, improving the standard of teaching learning and of teachers etc.
The biggest challenge in my country is the illiterate Scholars who represent wrongly the Islam, and the biggest challenge is terrorism, which is stopping education.
In my country, the biggest problem to achieving equitable access is the students have no longer interest with the subjects. In Indonesia, here, we learn many subjects and we have no focus until we are in high school. Because of that, we have no subject that we are really good at. More than that, most students in Indonesia, that taking public schools are really focus with theory and learning by reading the textbooks. We have a textbook mindset and when we are working, we cannot adapt easily with the environment. I believe that the mindset should be changed, the most important is not what written on textbook but how the student learn about the real experiences from the expert. The practice should be around 70% in the education curriculum.
A new paradigm of education for all generations and classes
We are pleased that the promotion of primary education was stressed in the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) in 2000, and it is important that these efforts continue beyond 2015 as well. At the same time, policies that promote the value of non-formal education are becoming increasingly important.
For each person to become empowered to take leadership in their respective communities and transform reality for one’s happiness as well as for others… this should be the goal of education. After all, we live in an ever-changing, complex, interdependent world in which our actions directly and indirectly affect the lives of others on this globe.
Education has long been viewed as a means for social development, but we need a change in perspective, to find ways for society to contribute to people’s education – in other words, a transition from “education for the sake of society” to “society for the sake of education.” Education policies must be evaluated from this basic perspective.
If this is to be the framework when discussing the issue of education, then we should not just focus our attention on formal school education but consider other learning opportunities given to all generations and classes.
At the recent Rio+20 Conference, our organization, Soka Gakkai International, organized an interdisciplinary roundtable on the role of education and learning. At this event, “The Future We Create,” it was noted that mass media as well as NGOs play important roles in promoting ESD, together with formal educational institutes. For more information, please see:
In “The Future We Want,” the outcome document of Rio+20, paragraph 231 stresses the importance of non-formal education. *
As we consider concrete numerical indexes of post-MDGs, in addition to benchmarking primary and secondary education, it is also vital to include such elements as literacy rates and access to information sources such as mass media or the internet which offer “learning” in a broader context. It may be worthwhile to quantify the number of recipients of non-formal education and their participation in social activities. In order to understand if society offers an environment that enables individuals to exercise leadership based on what they have learned, it may be interesting to monitor people’s participation in the community’s various decision-making processes.
*Paragraph 231 of “The Future We Want”
Dear Friends & colleagues!
I would like to share following event information .
Dr. Anil Pratap Singh,Secretary & CEO,
Global Science Academy (GSA),
Basti-272 001 India.
Jóvenes Organizados de la Comunidad de El lolo y La Cuesta
"Los jóvenes de bajos recursos ven vendadas las oportunidades de acceder a niveles educativos intermedios y superiores “por ende su sueños frustrados
En Honduras es un país de 8.4 millones de habitantes, tres millones 987 mil 236 son hombres y cuatro millones 213 mil 559 son mujeres.
Se estima que la tasa de crecimiento anual es de 1.888 por ciento. Es un promedio porcentual anual del cambio en el número de habitantes, entre nacimientos y muertes, y el balance de los migrantes que entran y salen de un país. El porcentaje puede ser positivo o negativo, la tasa de crecimiento es un factor que determina la magnitud de las demandas que se debe satisfacer por la evolución de las necesidades de un pueblo en cuestión de infraestructura como escuelas, hospitales, vivienda, carreteras y otros recursos como alimentos, agua, electricidad y empleo.
Considerando que en Honduras es una sociedad que se debate en la pobreza, violencia y poco acceso a los servicios de educación, salud la población demanda acceso a la vivienda, oportunidades de empleos, educación, salud y otras necesidades básicas a las que el 60 por ciento no tiene acceso especialmente a una gran parte de la población adolescente especialmente de las zonas periurbanas y rurales que demandan educación básica como un derecho que es violentado en este país y que debería estar en la agenda de los gobernantes.
Como grupo de jóvenes del país creciente, en la actualidad se estima que la Población Económicamente Activa es de 1.4 millones de habitantes que comprende entre edades de 12 a 29 años y no tiene acceso a la educación y sus trabajos son subempleados que apenas pueden sobrevivir porque llevan consigo el sustento de la familia, En cuanto a la población juvenil su entrada al mercado laboral presenta más dificultades que para la población adulta; más de la mitad de la población desempleada tiene menos de 24 años. A esto se le suma la alta tasa de fecundidad entre adolescentes, donde la pobreza es un flagelo que sigue castigando a un amplio sector de la ciudadanía.
En donde se limita su participación plena y activa en el desarrollo nacional, ya sea en la comunicación, producción, en el campo agrario, industria, comercio, en la política, en el área de justicia, porque esta generación es la que relevará a los actual gobernantes que por hoy solo son modelos de corrupción en todo lo que hacen , realizando procesos de democracias falsos ,gastando los pocos recursos del estado de forma descomedida en campañas políticas que no abonan a la democracia si no al divisionismo partidista , llevando de encuentro los derechos a la salud y a la educación de la niñez y juventud.
Somos un grupo de jóvenes que trabajamos voluntariamente para ofrecer educación alternativa a jóvenes de escasos recursos que quieren culminar su educación básica, atendemos a 220 jóvenes en área periurbana , jóvenes que sueñan con tener una carrera Universitaria con el propósito de mejorar sus condiciones de vida.
Somos testigos que nuestros jóvenes en este país son presa fácil de: Las drogas, maras, pandillas, trafico de drogas, mulas del trafico de drogas, embarazo temprano, delincuencia juvenil, trata de niñas , por ende la violencia contra nuestros jóvenes desde 1998 a la fecha han sido asesinados 3.494 niños/as y jóvenes menores de 23 años.
La segunda causa es el VIH/SIDA y la tercera es la mortalidad asociada al embarazo. La percepción ciudadana se vincula a la inseguridad con los y las jóvenes de las maras o pandillas, lo que conlleva un profundo proceso de estigmatización, situación que resulta crítica cuando se potencia por los grandes atrasos del sistema judicial hondureño.
Los jóvenes al no tener educación, no tienen acceso a trabajo y al no tener ninguna de las dos cosas están en la calle, lejos de su familia, y al estar en la calle esto los vincula directamente al tema de la violencia, ya que los adolescentes y jóvenes están en ambientes muy fértiles para el crimen organizado del país y su principal campo que es el narcotráfico, que en Honduras tiene establecidas e instaladas sus bases operativas y hace de los jóvenes y adolescentes su principal recurso para desarrollar la narcoactividad en nuestro territorio.
Si para el gobierno la prioridad fuese la niñez y la juventud principalmente los más pobres, Honduras fuese un país de grandes cambios con oportunidades y calidad de educación. Cada día vemos como los gobiernos actúan de manera corrupta, malgastando los fondos que deben ser invertidos en el pueblo se dice que es un país demócrata, pero no lo demuestran el pueblo no tiene voz ni voto para expresar lo que uno realmente quiere todo se rige por la burocracia de los gobernantes y hacen de la nación lo que mas les convenga. Al tratar tema de juventud son decididos por ellos mismos, como pueden tomar decisiones si no se sientan a escuchar a la juventud, en este país no tiene ningún efecto ya los resultados de tantas muertes de jóvenes victimas de la violencia hondureña, mucho menos sentarse a dialogar e implementar estrategias para combatir este fenómeno que no solo es nacional sino también mundial aquí en su mayoría las muertes quedan impune.
Como no se tienen que dar estas consecuencias si somos un país sin oportunidades, no todos tienen acceso a la educación por el escaso recursos económicos en las familias hondureñas, la mayor parte de la población de Honduras son pobres. Honduras sigue siendo pobre en la calidad de educación, cuantas veces los gobiernos se dan el lujo de ir a otros países supuestamente a aprender a como sacar del sub-desarrollo a una nación a través de una buena educación en la cual todos los niños y jóvenes tengan acceso sin importar con condición social y económica.
Aquí hay un gran potencial en la población, gente con visión de superación, muy luchadora pero no explotan su potencial por que los gobernantes no dan un apoyo económico y los permisos de operación son limitados. En los hogares los padres de familia se ven obligados a explotar a sus hijos para tener algo que comer durante el día, familias de 5 a 7 miembros y que se sostienen de una sola fuente de ingreso, y que pasa cuando este no lo hay; refiriéndose a las madres solteras sin ningún apoyo y no pueden obtener un trabajo por que deben estar al cuidado de sus hijos. Los casos de niñas, adolescentes y jóvenes con embarazos a temprana edad y su consecuencia que no cuentan que el apoyo paternal en Honduras es muy común, y a través pasa el tiempo los afectados siguen siendo los mismos niños y obviamente ellos serán el reflejo de lo que viven en sus hogares.
Como un grupo que somos de jóvenes organizados y como agentes de cambio, proponemos:
Queremos que se le de seguimiento de los niveles de educación que se toma en la población niñez y juventud en Honduras, es decir que priorice los detalles a que todos tengan un nivel mínimo de 9 años .
Queremos que los gobiernos tomen conciencia de el uso inadecuado que están haciendo con el dinero, tocando el tema de la política es una lastima ver como millones de lempiras se malgastan en campañas publicitarias, todo para prometer lo mismo que siempre se queda solo el carteles, nosotros los jóvenes queremos hechos no palabras basta con la palabra del pueblo con decir que ya no queremos mas injusticia, basta de mentiras y tampoco queremos que jueguen con la dignidad de la gente pobre y humilde de Honduras, aquí es costumbre tocar el estomago de los pobres, recientemente el caso de las elecciones internas son muchos los candidatos políticos que compran los votos de estas personas para lograr alcanzar el poder. El voto es un derecho a elegir a quien queremos que gobierne nuestro país, pero es libremente la elección no es un negocio, lo único que se refleja con esta acción es mayor corrupción por parte de los futuros gobernantes. Una vez que ellos tienen lo que quieren o sea el poder, ya los pobres no somos nadie, es mas es como sin nunca nos han visto.
También queremos que sea un país donde nos podamos expresar libremente, sin temor a represalias donde los jóvenes seamos los protagonistas para poder llevar a cabo proyectos donde involucremos a mas jóvenes, y por evitar que se involucren en actividades negativas y rescatar los que ya están dentro. Hacer de nosotros mismo jóvenes emprendedores y que seamos una fuente de apoyo moral, social y económico en nuestras familias. Donde los hondureños especialmente los jóvenes no piensen en la posibilidad del sueño americano, ahora como el sueño europeo son los dos países más fuertes en migración (Estados Unidos y España) donde esos viajes también son consecuencias de las muertes accidentales que viven los jóvenes, todo por tener un pedazo de pan en las mesas de sus hogares.
Sería un país maravilloso que en este país se creyera en la capacidad de su gente, y que no duden que todos con una educación logramos lo que queremos que sea, un mundo lleno de paz y amor, sin violencia, con igualdad de oportunidades, y con seguridad.
Elaborado por consenso de jóvenes organizados de áreas periurbana La Cuesta, El Lolo de Tegucigalpa MDC.
Equity, in today's policy circles, is once again being eclipsed by excellence under such guises as attention to education outcomes like learning or, more specifically, reading. Never mind that positing an equity-excellence tradeoff misses their inextricable interdependence. "Excellence for whom?" is the essential question and it is an equity one. Nonetheless, international agencies have been running from equity. The World Bank and the Brookings Institution now focus on learning while USAID focuses on reading. To be sure, these foci still have an equity rhetoric but the previous equity focus seems much diminished. Similarly, the current attention to secondary education, youth, and employment seems to have turned its back on the unfinished job of providing access to quality primary education -- which is very far from done. Equity should be at the forefront of education and development policy discourse and it is not. And an equity discourse needs to be tied to a rights discourse, as many contributors have.
University of Maryland
• Equitable access and academic excellence are essential and compatible aspects of a quality higher education.• To improve access to higher education, admission criteria must move away from a primary focus on each learner’s achievements and entry qualifications towards the recognition of his/her potential, without the latter becoming the sole criterion for admission.• Targeted strategies and policies designed specifically to elicit the students' full potential are required so as to increase access to, and success in higher education by individuals who are traditionally under-represented because of their social background, economic status, gender, ethnic origins, [dis]abilities, low quality of prior schooling or for other reasons.• National and institutional policies and programmes should be developed through ongoing dialogue among all stakeholder groups and should acknowledge and address the broad array of academic, financial and personal barriers facing potential learners.• Higher education that responds to the challenges of equitable access and successful participation requires sound policies and adequate public funding for institutions and students. Such policies must be sensitive to local conditions; borrowing policy solutions from other countries that have different problems and priorities may not be the best solution.• Equitable access to and broader participation in higher education require active linkages between higher education and primary and secondary education and seamless, educational pathways beginning with early childhood and continuing throughout life, and aided by career guidance and counselling services when appropriate.• Responding to the varied needs of learners and of society requires a differentiated but coherent higher education system reflected in a transparent qualifications framework; a system in which institutions are assessed according to their specific mission and goals.• To promote access and student success, different institutional models, flexible programmes of study as well as a variety of delivery modes must be available to allow individuals at all stages of life to move through higher education in a manner that suits their needs.• International mobility, exchanges and cross-border education activities must integrate the twin goals of increased access and equitable participation.Recommendations for Higher Education InstitutionsBased on these principles, the International Association of Universities proposes the following action agenda for adoption and implementation by higher education institutions, while recognising the diversity of economic and financial conditions as well as the particular political, cultural, and historical aspects that define various national contexts.• Integrate the goals of equitable access and successful participation for all learners into the institutional mission and develop specific objectives and strategies for achieving them.• Work in partnership with government, representatives of other educational sectors, professional associations and employers in order to address issues of access and successful participation in a holistic manner, taking into consideration the outcomes of secondary level schooling, labour market trends and national development needs.- 2 -Adopted by IAU 13th General Conference, Utrecht, July 2008
"World day of peace" speech by the pope: I know that this comment is not specifically about ACCESS to education, but I would like to ask feedback on what people think about the recent speech of the pope. In this speech he condems non-traditional 'families' and als condems non-traditional gender roles. I fear this will lead in practice to the assignment to a lower social status of women, transgenders, homosexuals and any children and adult expressing non-rigid gender roles and thus create more inequality and more intolerance. In some circles the pope's speech is actually considered hate speech.
Here some excerpts:
Anjela Taneja, southern Education Issue Co-Lead Oxfam International
The specific targets and indicators need to be located within an overall Post 2015 framework that is inclusive. More specifically, regarding the issues of education, it would be desirable to lay down the broad approach that would need to guide the selection of the indicators.
Furthermore, the questions of equity and quality are organically linked and the overall framework for education under the Post 2015 framework needs to keep these twin concerns at the heart of the new agenda.
The framework must
The targets should broadly take into consideration the following:
Some of the specific considerations related to Inclusion and Equity
These recommendations are partly derived from the joint UNESCO-RTE Forum consultation on Education in the Post 2015 framework held in India and has been supplemented through experiences from the Oxfam Confederation.
 including adequate number of trained teachers, infrastructure, curriculum, materials, localized assessment, structures for community/parental/child participation etc.)
Pour favoriser un accès équitable la cible doit être :
- le Gouvernement pour lequel l'éducation des enfants est un devoir. Les indicateurs : Le pourcentage que représente le budget de l'éducation dans le budget national, les taux nets de scolarisation, les taux d'abandons scolaires, l'indice de parité, etc
Les principaux enseignements tirés des pays qui ont réussi résident dans le fait que tous ces pays ont fait de l'éducation une réelle priorité : augmentation des budgets, prises de mesures pour favoriser la scolarisation des filles, valorisation des enseignants, pratique d'une pédagogie genre sensible.
Les défis pour assurer un accès équitable sont étroitement liés à la politique gouvernementale : : il doit démocratiser l'éducation en rapprochant le plus possible les institutions scolaires des des populations, en construisant des infrastructures qui soient accessibles aux enfants avec handicaps. L'environnement scolaire doit permettre l'épanouissement de tous les enfants et surtout des filles. L'octroi de bourses aux élèves issus de familles est un facteur favorisant l'équité dans l'accès à l'éducation.
Ma recommandation clé pour améliorer l'accès équitable dans le cadre post-2015 est que le financement de l'éducation doit devenir une priorité. Le Gouvernement doit pouvoir disposer de ressources nécessaires pour éduquer tous les enfants. La société civile devrait &galement être soutenu dans son travail d'accompagnement. L'effort de financement doit concerner toutes les parties prenantes Gouvernements, organismes onusiens, organisations internationales, secteur privé pour lequel une taxe à l'éducation devrait être instituée dans tous les pays
Contribution of the International Movement ATD Fourth World to the thematic consultation on education
Discussion one: Equitable access to education
The following reflections on education are based on the experiences of people living in situations of poverty. These contributions and proposals resulted from two participatory seminars held in Mauritius and Bolivia to evaluate the MDGs with families from a background of poverty. These seminars are part of a larger participatory action-research project involving eight other countries (Burkina Faso, Madagascar, the Philippines, Peru, Haiti, Guatemala, Brazil and Belgium), with the goals of
Assessing the impact of the MDGs on the most vulnerable populations,
Creating a participatory research methodology that gives those living in extreme poverty the means to contribute their knowledge and experience to the evaluation of the MDGs
Making proposals to the UN for policies and goals in a new development agenda that would benefit those living in extreme poverty
In each location, participants living in extreme poverty have identified the MDG-related policy fields of priority concern to them, in order to deliver on the project's aims stated above. These include: eradication of extreme poverty and right to decent work; access to quality and culturally appropriate education; gender equality; maternal and infant health; sustainable and healthy environment. Cross-cutting themes also being considered include the effects of discrimination, the violence endured by people living in extreme poverty and the conditions for meaningful participation of people in extreme poverty in programming and policy-making. Several subjects were discussed during the seminars in Mauritius and Bolivia, but what follows are the contributions related to equal access to education for all.
Discrimination in education as a result of poverty
Poverty should not be a factor that excludes children from the right to an education. Nonetheless, the experiences shared here demonstrate how many children face difficulty in accessing and remaining in school, due to their socio-economic circumstances.
A father from Haiti laments “A child that cannot go to school because he has no money for transportation, or because his parents do not have a cent to give him; perhaps today he will go to school without any money in his bag for the trip, or without anything to eat, but tomorrow, he will not be able to endure it, and he will stop going”.
Families that live in a context of poverty recount how they have felt discrimination through the diverse reactions of teachers, school officials and other parents due to their lack of economic resources. These experiences reveal humiliated children and parents who are not listened to or taken serious when they denounce the mistreatment of their children. They are also blamed for their condition and are treated differently as a result. A mother from Bolivia spoke of her experience concerning her son: “His father was an alcoholic and died from alcoholism. One day I went to the school to ask how my son was doing. The director told me, 'Your son will be the same as his drunk father! Why do you not find him a women and marry him off', and I started to cry.”.
Finally, the participants in the two seminars highlighted the difference in treatment that children experience according to school performance: a mother from Bolivia revealed that “they only ask the best students to read out loud, to raise the flag or to make them get up and dance. The teachers pay no attention to the ones a bit lower, they hardly teach them and they feel bad. I tell the teachers they should get the students that do the worse to participate, they should lift them up and treat the students equally.”
In Mauritius families living in extreme poverty, along with NGO workers and government officials all agreed that the current educational system is far too competitive and does not take into consideration each child's development (starting at a very young age). We must allow each child to enjoy his rights and opportunities, and to treat each child equally. Together they proposed an overhaul of the educational system that would support the full development (physical, intellectual, artistic...) and blossoming of every child. The failure that many children experience by the end of primary school exposes the inadequacies of the educational system.
As a result of the work carried out in both seminars, the participants drafted numerous proposals to counter discrimination based on poverty status:
The mechanisms that protect children from acts of humiliation and discrimination in schools needs to be strengthened.
Invest in training the teaching body (pre-school, primary education...) on the realities of poverty, involving people living in poverty in this training, under the proper conditions, from non-teaching staff, to superintendents and heads of teaching establishments. Provide training in child psychology so staff can support the children.
Make cooperation, between children, parents and teachers integral in school planning.
In the classroom create solidarity between the more advanced and less advanced students and make the parents aware of this solidarity between students so that they may foster it in their community.
End the practice of ranking students and instead accentuate the successes of each child.
In the classroom make the mixing of children of different skill levels a standard practice.
Girls also have the right to an education and to be treated as equals
The number of girls attending school has increased, a change that has not gone unnoticed by the participants. Yet, girls and young women see their educational opportunities restricted facing hurdles to complete their studies due to lingering gender stereotypes and adherence to gender roles.
In Latin America, there has been overall progress in improving access to education for girls. However, this is only a first step. Prejudice and deep rooted sexism persists in societies which is replicated in our schools. Girls continue to be assigned roles that involve subordination to men, while boys are prevented from expressing their feelings.
A mother from Bolivia admits “I only studied until the first year of primary school. After that, my grandmother no longer wanted to send me to school. She told me: […] It is only necessary to send boys to study! Women have to tend to the sheep, so I did not go to school. I was in pain as a young girl. Now I make my sons and daughters go to school”.
Proposal to foster gender equality
Officials should identify and combat discrimination against girls and work to prevent gender-based violence in schools
Linguistic and cultural discrimination
In order to achieve an equitable access to education, students' linguistic and cultural diversity must be respected. Teachers and administrators need to understand these linguistic and cultural realities, but also need to be aware of the daily lives of their students who experience poverty and extreme poverty. This requires increased investment and resources for teachers and staff.
Teachers and education officials have little knowledge of the family environment of their students and the reality surrounding the school which results in a lack of sensitivity when faced with the problems children in a situation of poverty face. In general, they do not always respect the cultural identities of their students and they teach them in a language that is not their own. A father from Peru recounted, “The teachers need to be motivated and trained in order to understand what their students are experiencing, because sometimes the teachers do not grasp this reality. Some of the parents are poor, if they knew the reality of the parents and the community or how to speak Quechua so that they could understand the children, that would make education better.”
Proposals to counter linguistic and cultural discrimination
Education is a fundamental right and the use of one's mother tongue is a right.
Cultural identities of the students must be respect, using their mother tongue in instruction as a means to access knowledge.
Hidden cost of free education
Despite the fact that in many countries education is meant to be free, in practice children in situations of poverty continue to be excluded due to the costs associated with education. The knowledge shared by participants in the seminars show that parents are required to pay enrollment fees, financial support for teaching materials and uniforms. In addition, parents' associations may often ask parents for contributions towards the costs for building maintenance and the use of these funds is not always transparent. The failure to pay these extra costs can result in children being denied access to school establishments or being marginalized within the classroom.
A mother from Peru reported that, “They say that education is free but it is not. We are always being charged by the parent's association or by the school board. They ask us to pay for photocopies of files and other activities; this is required. You also have to bring supplies and uniforms or they do not let you in”.
Seminar participants expressed concern due to a tendency towards privatization of education, particularly in Latin America and a weakening of public schools. This creates a situation where children whose families cannot pay for private school risk being left behind. A mother from Bolivia stated that, “Many mothers prefer to put their kids in private school, instead of buying clothes... because they see that in public high schools there are strikes, students and teachers arrive late and there is no control”.
School must be free, with no hidden cost, so that no child is excluded from his or her right to education and to learn.
Proposal for transparency in school fees
There is a need for greater accountability and transparency over use of resources managed by school boards and parents' associations.
My key recommendation(s) for improving equitable access in the post-2015 framework are: 1) promote the practice of universal assessment for disability to ensure that potential problems that could mitigate against children's enrolment and participation in education are identified and addressed as early as possible before they evolve into disabilities; 2) encourage countries to make the education curricular and learning practice flexible and compliant to carter for emerging educational needs of different groups of children.
This contribution is posted on behalf of the Sexual Rights Initiative (SRI), a collaborative project of six partner organizations: Action Canada for Population and Development, Akahatá – Equipo de Trabajo en Sexualidades y Géneros, the Coalition of African Lesbians, Creating Resources for Empowerment in Action (CREA, India), the Egyptian Initiative for Personal Rights, and the Federation for Women and Family Planning (Poland). The SRI aims to advance human rights related to sexuality, i.e., sexual rights within global policy processes. www.sexualrightsinitiative.com
Through this submission the SRI would like to highlight the links between adolescents’ sexual rights and education. Gender-based discrimination, social control over girls’ sexuality and sexual abuse lead to high drop out of girls from formal education systems. Discrimination against and humiliation of gender non-conforming and transgender children causes them to drop out as well. In South Asia, for example, intersex children are often given away to hijra communities who, facing social ostracization, live in poverty and are kept out of formal education systems. Gay and lesbian students across the world face harassment, discrimination and violence in educational institutions, leading to poor education and health outcomes.
The absence of comprehensive, evidence-informed education on human sexuality, sexual and reproductive health and gender equality results in perpetuation of gender-based violence and discrimination. It also inhibits adolescent girls’ access to sexual and reproductive health information and services. Furthermore, there exist legal and administrative restrictions to adolescents’ access to sexual and reproductive health information and services, such as statutory rape laws and parental consent regulations for access to health services, including contraception, STI prevention, HIV testing and counselling and abortion. As a result, early pregnancy and childbearing are prevalent and, along with lack of support services, cause girls to forego their education. Moreover, there are educational institutions that expel pregnant girls and do not allow their return after childbirth. Stigma around HIV results in denial of educational opportunities to children living with HIV.
The full range of adolescents’ sexual rights needs to be guaranteed, consistent with their evolving capacities, in order to enable their access to quality education. The legal, policy and administrative barriers to adolescents’ exercise of their right to sexual and reproductive health must be removed. Wide-ranging public education programmes are necessary to eliminate gender stereotypes, change restrictive gender norms and promote intolerance of gender-based violence. Laws must prohibit gender-based discrimination and all forms of gender-based violence, and their enforcement must be prioritised. Policies and programmes must be developed with the participation of girls and must utilize a gender perspective in order to benefit girls, for example, providing adequate and segregated fully functioning sanitary facilities in schools, and enabling retention in school of adolescent girls that get pregnant.
Children and adolescents must be provided comprehensive sexuality education, according to their evolving capacities. Effective sexuality education must go beyond biology to educate children and adolescents about gender equality, healthy and positive aspects of sexuality, relationships, gender-based and sexual violence, sexual and gender diversity, healthy emotive processes, informed consent and human rights. It should promote empowerment and autonomy by including structured opportunities for adolescents to practice life skills they will need to be able to make free and informed choices about their sexual lives and to explore their attitudes and values. Such education must be free of and aim to eliminate stereotypes, discrimination, and stigma; must respect the evolving capacities of children and adolescents; and must be tailored to meet the specific needs of particular groups e.g. children with disabilities and those living on the streets. Such education must also be secular since often religious fundamentalisms permit and/or promote discrimination based on gender, sexual orientation and gender identity.
Further, it is important to recognise that certain groups such as girls, LGBT (lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender) adolescents, adolescents with disabilities and adolescents living in poverty face disproportionate violations of their sexual rights and to ensure that comprehensive sexuality education programmes are reaching them, including through implementation in both formal and informal settings. Peer education programs should be supported in both settings; with design aspects of long-term training, regular supervision and community involvement these are found to be effective in empowering adolescent educators and reaching marginalised communities of adolescents. Further commitment and action are needed in order to ensure that all children have access to high quality, comprehensive and evidence-informed sexuality education.
Whatever format the post-2015 development framework adopts, it must prioritize process and approach, particularly a human rights-based approach, rather than deliverables, outcomes and numbers. Policy and programmes must prioritize marginalized communities, a number of which have been highlighted in this submission. Mechanisms for participation and accountability must be established and strengthened, and adequate resources allocated to enable these efforts. Accelerated efforts by States to realize everyone’s sexual rights, including adolescents’, must be prioritized within the post-2015 agenda.
I agree fully with this comment. But I am a bit troubled about the strategic possibilities to incorporate comprehensive sex education in (for example) the right to education. We know about the way the report of the Special Rapporteur on Education Vernor Munoz on this subject was rejected without any serious consideration. I must say I was a bit shocked about the radical type of language used in that report; it differed so much from regular diplomatic UN language that is was bound to ge a marginalizing response, which was a terrible thing considering the importance of the subject. So my question is: how can we seriously promote the inclusion of sexuality education in the mainstream discussion of governments?
The XXI century education should seek social skills training for life and to facilitate human development and communities, from early childhood through college age, we must seize the magnificent ability of our brain to develop what many schools may be overlooked and for that very reason it is not known the importance of training humans beyond logic and mathematics. Childhood, is perhaps the most importanten stage and the key to this. The current model forms us to be more and more individual and less tolerant, wars and violence unleashed because nuetra emotion and human values were not free from school. We must educate human beings to live in peace, to communicate assertively with the world and nature. Traditional schools are killing creativity and the potential it holds human experts say today. Since we are small our brains are homogenized with a surface or mediocre model, which does not let each of us develop and strengthen their talents, I think it is possible to stimulate and facilitate learning through new methodologies and pedagogies, not using television, the Internet or information technologies and communication only to fill the heads of trash, but rather, use them better for students (also family) through ICTs them reduce the time spent in schools and children can learn faster and devote more time to develop social skills and values along with their parents and family, as this will be different and the cause to be able to think in a different world. I think we can avoid tragedies in schools as they have lived north Americans, but you need to rethink the educational model, looking beyond the competence and capitalism. We can create an educational model for human development!.
Dear Luis Fernando: I agree with you! We must change education radically, to stop seeing it as a means for more "economic development", We are human beings and human communities first. Thanks alot for this brief but deep and meaningful contribution!
In my opinion, the challenges in ensuring equitable access to education for all (globally, regionally, nationally) are limited contributions of Government, teachers, and the different mindset of the masses itself. In fact, a lot of government aren't really care about educational issue. a lot of them just thinking about making a lot of profits for them shelf. We have to face that the government doesn't care about this issue and this condition makes the teacher becomes uselessl instead of playing their role in teaching. These factors above affect the mindset of the masses. The masses think that, they don't need any education. They think that they just need to stay alive without education. But the fact is, without education, a lot of people can't get a good job, they often working using their physical ability rather than their thinking power, and this thing causing a low life standard and a lot of people have to survive a lot in their society. This mindset is really bad also conventional. Creating a low quality society. These things are going on my country, Indonesia. Maybe we could make a campaign, especially a strict campaign against these mindset. By our contribution, it will work. And some government hands will do. Thankyou
Mi recomendación clave (s) para mejorar el acceso equitativo en el marco post-2015 es que los gobiernos del mundo deben tratar de disminuir las diferencias de ingreso entre todos los habitantes del planeta. Mientras existan desigualdades no puede darse una verdadera educación. Además, la educación debe dirigirse a hacer del educando una mejor ser humano, integral, y no debe considerarse como una llave de acceso a mayores niveles de ingreso. Para ello es importante, fundamental, entender que todo trabajo humano que coadyuve a mejorar la comunidad humana, merece el mismo respeto y salario, y que los trabajos no deben ser pagados ni apreciados de manera diferente, cualquiera que sea el tiempo y nivel de preparaciòn para ejercerlos. El trabajo humano debe ser el más adecuado a la naturaleza del ser humano que lo ejecuta, de manera que sea un medio para mejorar a la comunidad, asegurar el bienestar del trabajador y su familia, y hacerle un ser feliz y productivo, de acuerdo a su naturaleza.
The European Youth Forum acknowledges that significant progress has been made in gender parity in access to education at all levels as well as in enrolment rates in primary education. In fact, we note that education has been a higher priority for governments, as evidenced by the efforts made and resources invested in achieving the goals. Indeed, it is important to emphasise that political will is a key aspect of the progress towards achieving the development goals.
Among the main challenges in ensuring equitable access to education for all, we highlight:
The European Youth Forum believes that an holistic approach to education in the Post MDG framework would be key to improve the access to education, This approach is not only focused on the access to formal education but also encompasses other forms of learning opportunities, including through Non Formal Education in the context of youth organisations. It conforms to the evidence that non-formal education is a valuable tool to provide quality education with valuable learning outcomes for life. Therefore, the main recommendation of the Youth Forum in this regard is that more importance should be given to the access of young people to alternatives such as training schemes, apprenticeships, recognition of volunteering experiences and non-academic qualifications.
Furthermore, the Youth Forum recommends that more emphasis be placed on quality education and its key dimensions, such as equality and educational outcomes, rather than only on the attendance aspect. Expanding global ambitions to secondary education should also be considered. With this, we call for an inclusive approach to education to support vulnerable groups of children and young people, such as migrants, with disabilities and learning difficulties, along with an adequate support to teaching staff working with children with behavioural particularities.
The Post-2015 Development Agenda should also reinforce the commitment to to tackle early school leaving, which represents one of the major issues of the formal education system and a common challenge for the society, the state, employers, the private sector, civil society and local communities.
The European Youth Forum considers that the Post-2015 framework should have a target setting with a global scope but move away from the “one-size-fits-all” approach, establishing processes where countries set concrete national targets that for a matter of relevance and ownership can more effectively deliver on the global goals.
The Forum is also conscious that quality education aspects are not easy to measure or reach but still we firmly believe that realistic education targets should be set and better account for aspects such as equality and educational outcomes. Creating intermediate targets, in a long-term time-frame, should also be considered in order to ensure greater transparency and accountability.
Education needs to be available to everyone including those with disabilities lessons need to be flexible and systems should be in place to allow for differentials there should be emphasis placed also on community participation by all learners teachers need to be able to decide content to be taught within requirements learning to read write and spell should be prioity for all as should inclusion
Dr. Krishna Kant Jha
Education for Social Change with reference to Right to Education Act 2009 in India
The real problem of the students are when teachers give them alot of free time,The real problem of the education are when the teachers tell to the students What to do. Hey yo be quiet! Hey yo sit down! Do not drag the chair!
The problem of the teachers it's that they wanna be the leaders of the room class, All room need to give opinions when the teacher want to be the leader he starts to make feel the kids less. So in the recses what the kids would do!? They will play to be the leaders to and make other boys or girls Less, is a chain.Teachers need to talk too the students like theyr own sons Don't hate no one or discriminate. And punish every student that discriminate's other, They need to make them learn how to get in the shoes of others to see another panorama of the case and Talk, most of kids doesnt know how to talk but they have a very great ideas in theyr mind (like me) if people hear more they will real learn alot of stuff.
Based on my understanding of achieving equitable access for all, the key target should be to foster an environment where every child feels safe to be him/herself, in other words, a place where he/she can develop his/her own skills and personality in a way that is truthful to his/her sexual orientation, social condition, family structure and religious belief. It is very important that a child is taught that to be truthful to him or herself, he or she need not attack those who are different. The main indicator used to measure progress should be a decrease in reported bullying cases. In my opinion, the greatest challenge in ensuring equitable access to education for all globally is that often times, schools reflect the existing values of society instead of actively working towards shaping them. My key recommendations for improving equitable access in the post-2015 framework are:
Hello Haikaa, I heartily agree with your submission!